Pakistan–Russia relations [5 of 5]


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REFERENCES

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 ^ Speech of H.E. Mr. Sergey Peskov, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Russian Federation to the Islamic Republic of Pakistan at the Jubilee Function on the occasion of celebration of the 60th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between Russia and Pakistan – Official Website of the Embassy of the Russian Federation in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Adnan Ali Shah. “Pakistan-Soviet Union Relations”. Institute of Strategic Studies, Islamabad. Institute of Strategic Studies, Islamabad. Retrieved 26 February 2012. ^ Shahid M. Amin, (Former Pakistan Ambassador to Soviet Union) (October 17, 2010). “The foreign policy of Liaquat Ali Khan”. The Dawn Newspaper, October 17, 2010. Retrieved 31 January 2012. ^ Hilali, A.Z. ((June 30, 2005)). US-Pakistan Relationship: Soviet Invasion Of Afghanistan. U.S. and U.K (Multiple places): Ashgate Pub Co (June 30, 2005). pp. 304. ISBN 978-0-7546-4220-6. ^ a b c d e f g h Ardeshir Cowasjee (13 March 2011). “A recap of Soviet-Pakistan relations”. Dawn Newspaper, Pakistan Institute of International Affairs (1950). Retrieved 26 February 2012. ^ a b c d e f Ali, Syed Amjad (1992). Glimpses. Lahore, Punjab Province, mjad Ali, the Pakistan ambassador to the US at the time, narrated in his book “Glimpses” (Lahore: Jang Publisher’s, 1992) that the personal assistant of Suhrawardy advised embassy staff of the Prime Minister’s agreement to the US facility on Pakistan soil.: Jang Publishers, 1992. ISBN B002PB17NQ. ^ a b c Hamid Hussain. “Tale of a love affair that never was: United States-Pakistan Defence Relations”. Defence Journal of Pakistan. Hamid Hussain, 2002. Retrieved 26 February 2012. ^ a b c d e Arif, PA, Khalid Mahmood ((August 16, 2001)). Khaki Shadows: Pakistan 1947-1997. United States: Oxford University Press, USA; 1 edition. pp. 452 pages. ISBN 978-0-19-579396-3. ^ a b Sharma, Ram (1999). India-USSR relations. U.S.: Discovery Publishing House,. ISBN 81-7141-486-9.. ^ Duncan, Peter (1989.). The Soviet Union and India. Routledge, 1989.. ISBN 0-415-00212-5.. ^ Zeev, Moa (1999). Paradoxes of war: on the art of national self-entrapmen. Routledge, 1990.. ISBN [[Special:BookSources/0004445113X|0004445113X]]. ^ a b Kazmi, Muhammad Raza (2003). Liaquat Ali Khan: his life and work. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 2003. pp. 354. ISBN 978-0-19-579788-6. ^ a b c d e f “1971 India Pakistan War: Role of Russia, China, America and Britain”. The World Reporter. Retrieved 2011-10-30. ^ “Cold war games”. Bharat Rakshak. Retrieved 2009-10-20. ^ Birth of a nation. Indianexpress.com (2009-12-11). Retrieved on 2011-04-14. ^ a b c d “RUSSIAN – PAKISTANI RELATIONS”. Consulate-General of The Russian Federation In Karachi. Consulate-General of The Russian Federation In Karachi. Retrieved 19 August 2012. ^ a b DOc Kazi. “Bhutto’s arrival in Russia”. DOc Kazi. Retrieved 26 February 2012. ^ DOc Kazi. “ZAB with Leonid Brezhnev”. DOc Kazi. ^ a b c Malik, Rashid Ahmad (15 October 2010). “Warming Ties With Russia”. The Foreign Intelligence of News Intertional. Rashid Ahmad Malk of The News International. Retrieved 2011. ^ a b c (PSM), Pakistan Steel Mills (Updated). “Pakistan Steel: Our History”. Pakistan Steel Mills. Pakistan Steel Mills. Retrieved 2011. ^ a b c d Kamminga, Menno T. (1992). Inter-State Accountability of Violation of Human Rights. University of Pennsylvania, U.S.: University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 19–198. ISBN 0-8122-317-7. ^ a b c d e Yousaf, PA, Brigadier General (retired) Mohammad (1991). Silent soldier: the man behind the Afghan jehad General Akhtar Abdur Rahman. Karachi, Sindh: Jang Publishers, 1991. pp. 106 pages. ^ a b c d e Riccioppi, Linda (1994). “USSR and Pakistan relations” (google books). Soviet Policy towards South Asia in 1970. United States: Cambridge University Press, 1994. p. 237. ISBN 0-521-41457-1. Retrieved 19 August 2012. ^ “How the CIA created Osama bin Laden”. Green Left Weekly. September 19, 2001. Retrieved January 9, 2007. ^ “1986–1992: CIA and British Recruit and Train Militants Worldwide to Help Fight Afghan War”. History Commons. Retrieved January 9, 2007. ^ Kepel, Jihad, (2002), p.143-4 ^ a b c d e Anthony Hyman, Muhammed Ghayur, Naresh Kaushik (1989). Pakistan, Zia and after§Zia The Ringmaster. New Delhi: Abhinav Publications. pp. 130. ISBN 81-7017-253-5. ^ a b Editorial (July 31, 2003). “Tricky diplomacy”. The Economist. Retrieved January 4, 2012. ^ a b c d e f Yousaf, Mohammad and Adkin, Mark. “Afghanistan – The bear trap – Defeat of a superpower”. [1]. Retrieved 2007-07-27. ^ E. Kirichenko. “Восставшие в аду Бадабера”. Trud. Retrieved 2007-05-10. (Russian) ^ Adnan Ali Shah *. “PAKISTAN-RUSSIA RELATIONS: POST-COLD WAR ERA”. Adnan Ali Shah *. Retrieved 19 August 2012. ^ Staff (April 21, 2001). “Islamabad, Moscow seek better ties”. Dawn Archives, April 21, 2001. Retrieved 19 December 2012. ^ “A Recap of Soviet-Pakistan relations”. Dawn News13th March, 2011. 13 March, 2011. Retrieved 21 August 2012. ^ Russia against developing military ties with Pakistan ^ [2] ^ Reuters 28 November 2011. “No excuse to violate Pakistan sovereignty: Russia”. Dawn.com. Retrieved 29 November 2011. ^ “Khar off to Russia with love”. Express Tribune. 21 January 2012. Retrieved 21 January 2012. ^ a b Ahmad, Sultan. “If Pakistan is the gateway to Central Asia”. Sultan Ahmad. If Pakistan is the gateway to Central Asia. Retrieved 19 August 2012. ^ a b c d e APP (November 8, 2011). “Pakistan, Russia to go for FTA, currency swap agreement”. Tribune Express, November 8, 2011. Retrieved 19 August 2012. ^ “Bridging cultural borders: First-ever Urdu-Russian dictionary launched”. The Express Tribune. 2 August 2012. Retrieved 8 September 2012. ^ a b Max Fisher (January 11, 2013 at 6:30 am). “Most Russians and Pakistanis say they prefer a ‘strong ruler’ over democracy”. Washington Post, 2013. Retrieved 28 January 2013. [edit]External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Pakistan–Russia relations (Russian) Documents on the Pakistan–Russia relationship at the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs Daily Times – Russian Prime Minister visits Pakistan to boost relations (11/04/07) [edit]Diplomatic missions (English) (Russian) Embassy of Russia in Islamabad (English) Embassy of Pakistan in Moscow

Concluded.

Previous: Giving New Dimensions to Pak Russia Collaboration

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Pakistan–Russia relations [4 of 5]


In 2012, Russia and Pakistan covertly developed geopolitical and strategic relations behind the scenes. These have mainly centered on world politics.
And as the NATO-led ISAF and the US Forces in Afghanistan plan to leave Afghanistan in 2014, the Russian Federation has come to the conclusion that Pakistan is a crucial player in Afghanistan and that:
As NATO withdraws, it becomes all the more important and urgent for Moscow to seek some sort of modus vivendi with Islamabad.
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GIVING NEW DIMENSIONS TO PAK-RUSSIA COLLABORATION

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ECONOMIC AND GEOPOLITICAL CONVERGENCE

In 1990, Benazir Bhutto of Pakistan sent fare well message to Moscow to set up the economic coordination between two countries. [38] In 1991, then Benazir Bhutto drove the high-level economic delegation to Central Asia and Russia after the collapse of Soviet Union. [38]

Senior military officials and Defence Attaché of Pakistan and Russia, jointly working together at the communications tent at the Nigerian Air Force Base.

In 2003, the bilateral trade between Russia and Pakistan reached to 92 million US dollar, which increased to 411.4 million in 2006. [16] The bilateral trade between each country reached to 630 million in 2008 and ~400 million in 2009. [16] In the following year, both countries established the “Russian–Pakistan Intergovernmental Commission on Trade and Economic, Scientific and Technical Cooperation to cooperation in science and technology and education”. [16] (more…)

Pakistan–Russia relations [3 of 5]


Russia condemned the military coup d’état against Prime minister Nawaz Sharif in 1999 to remove the prime minister from power.
On 19 April 2001, the Russian Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs Alexander Losyukov paid a state visit to Pakistan where both countries agreed upon cooperating in economic development, and to work towards peace and prosperity in the region.
In the wake of September 11, 2001 attacks, the relations warmed rapidly when Pakistan denounced the government of Taliban and joined the NATO coalition to hunt down the Jihadist organizations and al-Qaeda.
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WAR AGAINST SOVIETS & POST WAR DEVELOPMENTS 

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So the Soviet relations with Pakistan came to deterioration on April 4, 1979, when Bhutto was executed by the Supreme Court of Pakistan. [21] Earlier, Leonid Brezhnev, Alexei Kosygin, and other members of the Politburo had sent repeated calls for clemency to the CMLA General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq who straightaway rejected the Soviet requests. [21] Breznev maintained that issue concerning Bhutto’s trial was Pakistan’s internal matter yet did not wish to see him executed. When Bhutto was hanged, Brezhnev condemned the act out of “purely humane motives”. [21]

MILITARY DICTATORSHIP (1977-1988)

Afghanistan map after Soviet intervention : Showing areas involving heavy fighting. Note: Areas adjacent to Balochistan province remained untouched (white region, south) from the fighting while the NWFP (north-west) was inflicted with heavy fighting.

Shortly after the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan, Pakistan’s military ruler General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq called for a meeting of the senior military members and technocrats of his government. [22] At this meeting, General Zia asked the Chief of Army Staff General Khalid Mahmud Arif (veteran of 1965 and 1971 wars) and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Admiral Muhammad Shariff (who was made POW by India during the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971) to lead a specialized civil-military team to formulate a geo-strategy to counter the Soviet aggression. [22] At this meeting, the Director-General of the ISI at that time, Lieutenant-General Akhtar Abdur Rahman advocated for an idea of covert operation in Afghanistan by arming the Islamic extremists, and was loudly heard saying: “Kabul must burn! Kabul must burn!”. [22] As for Pakistan, the Soviet war with Islamist Mujahideen was a complete revenge in retaliation of the Soviet Union’s long timed unconditional support for its arch-rival rival India, notably during the 1965 and the 1971 wars, which had led to the loss of its former wing East Pakistan. [22] (more…)

Pakistan–Russia relations [2 of 5]


In 1974, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto paid a tiring and lengthy state visit to Soviet Union, becoming the first prime minister since the independence of Pakistan in 1947. Bhutto and his delegation was met with great jubilation, a warm-hearted celebration took place after Bhutto was received by Alexei Kosygin in Moscow. The honorary guard of honor was offered by the Soviet Armed Forces, and a strong interaction took place between the two coutries during Bhutto’s democratic era.
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FINDING NEW FRIENDS, NEW FOES

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 MILITARY DICTATORSHIPS (1958-1971)

In July 1957, prime minister Suhrawardy approved the leasing of a secret ISI installation, near the Peshawar Air Base to the CIA. [6] After having staged the military coup d’état against President Iskander Mirza, Army Commander Ayub Khan visited the United States, thus further enhancing relations with the U.S., while at the same time, tried establishing link with the Soviet Union through Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. [6]

“Pakistan felt deceived because the U.S. had kept her in the dark about such clandestine spy operations launched from Pakistan’s territory” —General K.M. Arif, Chief of Army Staff. [7]

In 1959, Ayub Khan permitted the reconnaissance flights and covert surveillance flights of U-2, giving the authorization of final U-2 flight, piloted by USAF Captain Francis Gary Powers. This operation ended violently when Soviet Air Defence Forces shot down the U-2, capturing its pilot in the Soviet air space.

Overall, Ayub Khan knew of this operation, understanding the consequences and the aftermath, and shuddered his shoulders when he was notified in London, by the USAF and the CIA. [8]

The U-2 incident severely compromised Pakistan security and worsened relations between the Soviet Union and Pakistan, with Soviets now backing India.[8] During this time, the Indian nuclear programme expanded and progressed at very exponential level.[8] As an attempt to put up a bold front, former chief of army staff General Khalid Mahmud Arif while commenting on the incident stated that, “Pakistan felt deceived because the U.S. had kept her in the dark about such clandestine spy operations launched from Pakistan’s territory”.[8]

A great Soviet ire was on Pakistan, so the Soviets threatened to bomb the base if future missions were flown from it. [8] Soviet Union further paid back its revenge on Pakistan during Indo-Pakistani war of 1965, when it emerged as the biggest supplier of military hardware to India. [9] India too, had now, distanced herself from the Western block countries, developing close relations with the Soviet Union. [9] Together the Soviet Union and India used the diplomacy, convincing the U.S. and Western powers to keep a ban on Pakistan’s military and hardware. [10] After the 1965 war, the arms race between India and Pakistan became even more asymmetric and India was outdistancing Pakistan with a big margin. [11]

RELATIONS BETWEEN WEST AND EAST PAKISTAN

The Soviet Union had far more better relations with East-Pakistan, and had strong ties with the Communist Party in Pakistan’s eastern wing after successfully staging the protest to give national recognition toBengali language as compared to Urdu in the 1956 constitution. [12] The Communist Party played also its role to ensure complete elimination of Pakistan Muslim League once and for all, in the eastern wing leading to the collapse of federal government led by Pakistan Muslim League at the centre. [12]

The tendency towards democracy and the Anti-American sentiment was much greater in East-Pakistan, and this highly benefited the Soviet Union in 1971. [7] When the mutual defence treaty was signed, it was followed by the arrival of US military advisers from the MAAG group, which was announced in February 1954. As a result there was great outcry in East-Pakistan. Many demonstrations led by the communist party were held and the 162 newly elected members of East-Pakistan Parliament signed a statement, which denounced Pakistan’s government for signing a military pact with the United States.[7]

In post 1971 West-Pakistan, the Soviet relations with Pakistan improved after the formation of leading democratic and socialist Pakistan Peoples Party. [6] The tendency of socialism was greater in West Pakistan, in contrast to East Pakistan and in the former western wing of the country now Pakistan the trend and tendency towards communism was at its height. [6]

After the 1965 war, Soviet relations with socialist nuanced parties namely the Awami National Party, Pakistan People’s Party, and the Pakistan Socialist Party, impulsively improved. In 1972, the Pakistani Parliament passed the resolution which called for establishing ties with the Soviet Union.[6] During the 1980s when the purges took place under the Zia regime, the socialists members escaped to Soviet Union through Afghanistan, seeking  political asylum there. [6]

ROLE IN THE INDO-PAKISTAN WAR OF 1971

The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the 1971 Winter war, first signing the Indo-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation. [13] The Soviet Union sympathized with the Bangladeshis, and supported the Indian Army and Mukti Bahini during the war, recognizing that the independence of Bangladesh would weaken the position of its rivals—the United States, Saudi Arabia, and China. [13]

On 6. December and 13. December 1971, the Soviet Navy dispatched two groups of cruisers and destroyers and a nuclear submarine armed with nuclear missiles from Vladivostok; [13] they trailed U.S. Task Force 74 into the Indian Ocean from 18. December 1971 until 7. January 1972.

The Soviets also had a nuclear submarine to help ward off the threat posed by USS Enterprise task force in the Indian Ocean. [14][15] The Soviet Navy’s presence had put a threat of existence for Pakistan, with the Soviet nuclear submarines’ K-320 and Charlie, of which movements were picked up by Pakistan Navy’s submarines. [13] The Pakistan Navy’s submarines Ghazi, Hangor, and Mangor had sent solid evidence of Soviet Navy’s covert involvement helping the Indian Navy, and Soviet Navy’s own secret operations against Pakistan Navy. [13] Pakistan Navy avoided aggressive contacts with the Soviet Navy due to possible nuclear retaliation by Soviet nuclear submarines in Karachi. [13]

In 2012, in an official press release by the Russian Consulate-General in Karachi, the Russian ambassador remarked that former Soviet stance against Pakistan in 1971, was a “somewhat embarrassing for our relations”. [16]

DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENT (1971-1977)

U-2 Grand Slam Flight Plan, 1 May 1960

The democratic socialist alliance led by then-prime minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto made an effort to improve relations with the Soviet Union. This was for the first time in the history of Pakistan that Soviet Union’s ties with Pakistan began to warm up and relations were quickly improving. Reviving his foreign policy, Bhutto withdrew his country from SEATO and CENTO, breaking off relations with the United States under the presidency of Jimmy Carter.

In 1974, Bhutto paid a tiring and lengthy state visit to Soviet Union, becoming the first prime minister since the independence of Pakistan in 1947. Bhutto and his delegation was met with great jubilation, a warm-hearted celebration took place after Bhutto was received by Alexei Kosygin in Moscow. [17] The honorary guard of honor was offered by the Soviet Armed Forces, and a strong interaction took place between the two countries during Bhutto’s democratic era. [17] Bhutto also met Leonid Brezhnev and Pakistan concluded agreements with Soviet Union on mutual trust, cooperation, technical assistance, and friendship.[18]

While there, Bhutto succeeded to convince the Soviet leaders to establish the integrated steel mills, which prompted the Soviet Union to provide funds for the billion dollar project. [19] Prime Minister Bhutto made a deliberate attempt to warm relations with Russia as he was trying to improve relations with the Communist bloc. [19]

Bhutto sought to develop and alleviate the Soviet-Pak Relations, as Soviet Union established Pakistan Steel Mills in 1972. [20] The foundation stone for this gigantic project was laid on 30 December 1973 by the then Prime minister Mr. Z. A. Bhutto.

Facing inexperience for the erection work of the integrated steel mill, Bhutto also requested Soviet Union to send its experts to Pakistan. [20] Acceding to this request, Soviet Union sent dozens of advisers and experts, led by Russian scientist Mikhail Koltokof, who supervised the construction of this integrated Steel Mills with a number of industrial and consortium companies financing this mega-project. [20]

From 1973 till 1979, both countries enjoyed a strong relationship which also benefited the Soviet Union. [19] This interaction, however, turned short lived after the popular unrest which began to take place after the 1977 elections. [21] With active involvement of the United States, America’s notorious intelligence agency  the CIA sponsored the operation code-named Fair Play removing Bhutto from power in 1977.

Contd…

Next: War against Soviets & Post War Developments

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Related Posts: 

1. Pakistan can make Russia Queen of Asia 2. 2. Russia – Pakistan: the Way is Open for New Projects 3.  Pak–Russia Relations 4. After US, now Chinese bases in Pakistan!
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Pakistan–Russia Relations [1 of 5]


Relations between Pakistan and the Russian Federation were reactivated in 2007 after the 3-day official visit of Russian Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov.
He was the first Russian prime minister to visit Pakistan in the post Soviet-era in 38 years. He had “in-depth discussions” with then President Pervez Musharraf and Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz.
The major focus of the visit was to improve bilateral relations with particular emphasis on ways and means to enhance economic cooperation between the two countries. [Image: Russian president Dmitry Medvedev engaged in conversation with his Pakistani counterpart president Asif Zardari, 2010].

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START: SOMETIME GOOD, MANY TIME BAD

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Pakistan–Russian relations refer to the bilateral, historical, cultural, and international relations between the State of Pakistan and the Russian Federation. Pakistan and the Russian Federation first established the diplomatic and bilateral relations on 1 May 1948. [1]

For the most of the Cold War, Pakistan’s relations with then Soviet Union saw many ups and downs during different periods of Pakistan’s post indepndence history. During the 1947-50s Soviet Union enjoyed relatively healthy and strong relations with Pakistan when it had civilian governments. The relations, however, went ultimately cold soon after the U.S.-backed 1958 military coup d’état was staged by Gen Ayub Khan, the Commander in Chief of Pakistan’s armed forces, although attempts to warm the relations were made after the 1965 Indo-Pakistan war and in midst of 1970s, the relations were quickly improved and warmed.

In the late 1980s, Pakistan allied with the United States and Saudi Arabia to support the Mujahideen rebels during Soviet occupation of Afghanistan. (more…)

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