Pakistan ruined by language myth


The language paradox in Pakistan has undermined our education standards. With no well-defined language as a medium of instruction policy, we have a fractured system that divides society. There is though an excellent English-based system in the private sector, yet it is expensive and caters for a small wealthy elite. Children from the middle and lower-middle classes go to second-tier private schools which charge relatively modest fees. But these adopt a strange mix of languages while pretending to be English-medium. Why else would you see schools in the shantytowns of Karachi announce their Anglicised names and the fact that they are “English-medium” in Urdu script? The teachers explain in their mother tongue while teaching from English language textbooks from which the students plagiarise and memorise passages.
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CURRENT LANGUAGE PARADOX IS UNDERMINING OUR EDUCATION

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by Zubeida Mustafa

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Last year I wrote a book highlighting the crisis in Pakistan‘s education system caused by the way languages are used and taught. Its publication prompted one critic to remark that I was trying to “backwardise” the children of Pakistan. Another said that language was not the problem; it was what we taught that needed to be addressed.

These were typical responses from highly educated, fluent English speakers. They have glorified the English language in Pakistan to the extent that all logic has been put aside. But they wield great influence over public opinion and have even persuaded policymakers that the country’s education system can be fixed by hiring teachers competent in English. Such teachers are hired by exclusive private schools, which are beyond the reach of the majority. So proficiency in English automatically becomes the preserve of the affluent.

Since I have been more concerned about the majority’s problems, I have pleaded the case of the underprivileged by stating that children must initially begin their schooling in their own tongue, with which they are familiar. This will help their cognitive development and inculcate critical thinking. It will also enable them to be articulate participants in the construction of knowledge in the classroom and discourage the culture of rote learning. English should be introduced at a later stage and taught as a second language.

With the exception of a small minority of children who are bilingual even before they begin school, teaching children in a language other than their mother tongue in the early years does them harm, no matter how good their teachers may be. This approach robs the child of the natural advantage she has in her home language.

A child begins “acquiring” language from her environment soon after she is born. Children have already gained three or four years of language experience in their mother tongue when they start school. If English is to be the school language, these children lose this advantage. The benefit goes to a small minority that is bilingual from the start by virtue of their parents being the products of exclusive English-medium education.

Such is the power of myths about language in Pakistan that a public demand has been created for English. People believe that English is the magic wand that can open the door to prosperity. Policymakers, the wielders of economic power and the social elites have also perpetuated this myth to their own advantage. The door of prosperity has been opened but only for a small elite.

In a multilingual country such as Pakistan where at least eight major languages compete for supremacy, English occupies a special position by virtue of its “neutrality”. But the status of English as the language of international communication exerts additional pressure. This importance is reinforced by Pakistan’s employment market, which discriminates in favour of the fluent English speaker even though not every job requires an English language expert.

This language paradox has undermined our education standards. With no well-defined language as a medium of instruction policy, we have a fractured system that divides society. There is an excellent English-based system in the private sector that is expensive and caters for a small wealthy elite. Children from the middle and lower-middle classes go to second-tier private schools charging relatively modest fees.

They adopt a strange mix of languages while pretending to be English-medium. Why else would you see schools in the shantytowns of Karachi announce their Anglicised names and the fact that they are “English-medium” in Urdu script? The teachers explain in their mother tongue while teaching from English language textbooks from which the students plagiarise and memorise passages.

It is left to public-sector schools, patronised by the children of the poor, to adopt indigenous languages as the medium of instruction – rather apologetically. With the government rapidly disengaging itself from the education sector, these institutions perform dismally.

As a result, the country is in a state of linguistic confusion. On the one hand people are desperate to be seen as being proficient in English when they are actually not. At the same time they are ashamed of their own language though that is the only language they can communicate in. The ambiguity of the language of instruction policy allows schools to make their own choices, which has contributed to the present crisis in education in Pakistan.

The demand for English – a trend set by the privileged elite – has put schools under pressure. Not many teachers who can teach English or teach in English are available. That is why it would be feasible to get all schools to teach initially in the child’s mother tongue while concentrating on improving standards.

This would require the production of good textbooks and the training of teachers. Both of these can be done effectively in our own languages. The main challenge would be to decide judiciously which language is to be used as the medium in which region and at what stage other languages, including English, should be introduced.

Training English-as-a-second-language teachers should pose no difficulty. Such teachers can impart basic communication skills in English to their students who would be learning other subjects in their own language. Those going on to higher studies or needing greater competency in English could take up language courses that should be made widely available.

Zubeida Mustafa is a freelance journalist who writes a weekly column in one of Pakistan’s most widely circulated and influential English language newspaper. She writes on a variety of subjects but her interest has mainly been in the social sector which she has covered extensively. She has investigated in-depth issues such as education, health care, women’s empowerment, children’s rights and the lives of ordinary people. Her book Tyranny of Language in Education: The Problem and its Solution is published by Ushba.

Related Post:

1. Some Soul Searching: Pakistani Nationalism and Schooling
Source, Tile image, Image in the middle
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Some Soul Searching: Pakistani Nationalism and Schooling


The national education system in Pakistan need be based on our psyche, our cultural heritage, our religion but notwithstanding the true spirit of Pakistani nationalism
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OUR IDENTITY CRISIS

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by Nayyar Hashmey

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More than half a century has passed since Pakistan came into being. In the life of nations, its said its just trickle of time. However, people who believe in their nation’s resilience do not take it as an act of providence, to develop their societies, their nations, their states in centuries. For them years, months and even days count. They seize every moment in their life to gauge the output as they translate it into progress every hour, every day, every year. No surprise then that their “Time is Money”.

In contrast to this, we as a nation have developed the norm to venture upon that rarest of commodity called time. No wonder why after more than sixty years, we still struggle to find a raison d’etre for our nationhood.

Oblivious of our national goals, we indulge ourselves in trivialities. Many of our youth, when they ask ‘why Pakistan’ our thinkers, our opinion makers and our think tanks are unable to explain our younger generation the genesis of Pakistan. Our history books too, put forward the hackneyed phrases on brute majority of Hindus (which though partially correct but not the genesis of this nation) in British India. Though a fact that time, it’s no more tenable now. Almost same number of Muslims lives even to this day under the same brute majority of Hindus in present day India.

Then many of our religious scholars, ascribe to the theory of first Muslim, second Pakistani, a concept which was strengthened during General Zia’s dictatorial regime and been highly invigorated through history books mostly compiled by writers who believed or still believe in an Islamic revival based on the pattern of Muslim empires that existed before the arrival and colonization of the subcontinent by the British.

These and similar thematic approaches skepticised from the very outset, the legitimacy of Pakistani nationhood. Unfortunately the torch bearers of our education system did also not lag behind in exacerbating the educational philosophy which still remains dissiparious and goalless. Sometimes they played with the idea of countrywide education in respective mother tongue of each province, another time they started swimming along the maxim of every thing, every time every where Urdu and only Urdu.

Ever since independence, barring few English medium schools [which were mostly run by Christian missionaries then], the mainstream educational establishments continued mother tongue as the primary medium of instruction. This system seemed to have worked well till late 1960’s. However in the seventies of the past century our educational wizards came up with the novel idea of unilingual [Urdu] concept of instructing the Pakistani kids in their elementary schools.

With introduction of a unilingual concept the students were now being instructed right from the kindergarten to secondary classes in Urdu [especially in Punjab ]. While making this decision they totally ignored the fact that Urdu had never been the mother tongue of more than 6-7 percent Pakistanis. A great majority of Pakistani school kids used their respective mother tongues as medium of general discourse in their mohallas, in streets especially amongst their buddies. Naturally conflicts arose in the tender minds of young Pakistanis, who adopted a speech pattern which is neither standard Urdu nor compatible with the intonation and stress patterns of their mother tongue spoken for centuries by dwellers of the Indus valley lands called Pakistan. This further resulted in ambiguity and confusion and most of our children have started speaking language which is neither Urdu nor the mother tongue.

Having surmised the confusion as not enough, in the 1990’s other fits gripped our education wizards; chief affliction in this regard being adoption of English as a medium right from kindergarten and onward. In the beginning it was restricted to some selected schools in the private sector but shortly afterwards; these so called English schools started proliferating like mushrooms. Ever since then one finds such schools in every major city or town. These schools are scattered in city slums as well as in posh areas.

This English-mania even overwhelmed the Government of Pakistan who decided that the government run elementary schools will also use English as medium of instruction ignoring the fact that such a large number of teachers who can speak English and teach English to kindergarteners does not exist. A decision like this being self contradictory and ambiguous causes as much damage to our teaching methodology as has been the adoption of Urdu as medium of instruction at the elementary level of our education.

Speaking of English albeit its comprehension at primary level does not go hand in  hand with the linguistic pattern  of our students as they will have to give extra time in mastering English which they will do at the expense of other disciplines. Such contradictory policies based on imported schools of thought have not only debarred us to work out a system which is down to earth Pakistani and which bears the linguistic as well as socio-cultural nuances of Pakistani society at large.

QUESTION ARISES WHAT SHOULD BE DONE :

Let us take the concept of nationhood. Putting too much stress on religiousness of our nationhood, we have landed nowhere. With start of the new millennium this was the very religiousness of our youth which was hijacked by the forces that be, to turn out youth into human time bombs.

Now as Muslim we no doubt belong to the great nation of Islam, the Muslim umma. The latter, however, is not confined to a single country but scattered all over the globe. And when an Egyptian, a Malaysian or a Moroccan can be a Muslim at the same time, why can’t we the Pakistanis be Pakistani and Muslim at the same time. Even a Christian born in Pakistan can be a good Pakistani and a good Christian at the same timer. So it’s high time that we come out of the false pretense of first Muslim, second Pakistani. We must be, first Pakistani first Muslim

The founder of the nation, Qaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah had the vision to stress this very concept of Pakistani nationhood when he said…

Now if we want to make this great state of Pakistan happy and prosperous, we should wholly and solely concentrate on the well being of the people, and specially of the masses and the poor. If you will work in cooperation, forgetting the past, burying the hatchet, you are bound to succeed. If you change your past and work together in a spirit that every one of you, no matter to what community he belongs, no matter what relations he had with you in the past, no matter what is his colour, caste or creed, is first, second or last a citizen of this state with equal rights, privileges and obligations, there will be no end to your progress.

I cannot emphasize it too much. We should begin to work in that spirit and in course of these angularities of the majority and minority communities, the Hindu community and the Muslim community — will vanish. You are free, you are free to go to your temples, you are free to go to your mosques or to any other places of worship in this state of Pakistan. You may belong to  any religion or caste or creed — that has nothing to do with business of the state.

Taking a cue from these words of our great Qaid, once the ideology of first Pakistani first Muslim firmly saddles into the minds of our younger generation, they will themselves find the answer to ‘Why Pakistan’.

This approach further ensures that every Pakistani belongs to his / her motherland, so no one needs to borrow the fear of a religion or a country to fortify his / her sense of belongingness to Pakistan. And we should not forget the fact that the areas which now constitute Pakistan were essentially distinct from the Indian mainland linguistically as well as culturally.

Arrival of Indian Muslims with different linguistic and cultural heritage did not and cannot change the real character of Pakistan. And as a mother rears up her children, the real ones and the adopted, the Pakistani motherland owes its adopted children as much love as it does to its own children.

AND NOW THE EDUCATION

The national education system in Pakistan has to be based on our psyche, our cultural heritage, our religion but notwithstanding the true spirit of Pakistani nationalism. The myth of one medium, be it Urdu, English or be it the provincial vernacular tongue – needs to be discarded for once and all.

[Right: A YOUNG Pakistani carrying national flag on Pakistan Independence Day in Islamabad]

Pakistan comprises of four different linguistic patterns. We should adopt a medium for elementary education based on the language of that particular province. Mother tongue makes a kid to think natural, behave natural and allows the children to grow up in their normal, natural style. Adoption of a language other than mother tongue distorts the very personal, individualistic traits in the children for a child starts speaking a language by composing the words simultaneously in the mother tongue and then another one. This creates ambiguity and confusion in his / her mind.

Once the child has undergone 4-5 years of academic gestation, it is then able to compose independently in other languages too. Hence we should adopt a medium which is the mother tongue of the child. Later the instructions could be gradually converged into Urdu as well as English.  This will not only produce Pucca Pakistanis but also would make our pupils fully confident of meeting the intellectual standards attained by a developed nation.

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The Phenomenology of Trilingualism in Punjab


by Mirza Athar Baig

The meeting starts with all too familiar notes of welcome in English by the chair, the agenda is presented, discussion begins, grave matters are analyzed and considered opinions are put forward only to be countered by different opinions. Workable solutions are sought, proposals are given, suggestions are submitted, either to be partially accepted or totally rejected, but all in English and above all in English.
A series of incomprehensible administrative and inter-subjective rigidity starts prevailing in the meeting and then as if involuntarily a stray remark in Urdu slips through the mouth of the chair. Picking up the lingual clue instantaneously, one of the worthy members, hitherto rather incommunicative, hurls his barrage of opinions, analyses and arguments. Another member follows suit, and very soon it is an all out Urdu in the meeting. Strangely enough, the body language of the worthy members is changed too, and even more strangely, hitherto unknown, almost hidden aspects of the agenda items start dawning upon the participants.
They are on the threshold of making important decisions, but lunch time arrives, and they rise for some suitable food for body, now that they have enough food for thought, but thought processes inevitably continue, but now in Punjabi. There are vehemently conspiratorial conversations going on among the groups of twos and threes, with derisive remarks about fellow members being shared and avidly relished. The wisdom of the agenda items is being questioned in highly impertinent Punjabi idiom. Opinions are again being consolidated, arguments chiseled, analyses wrought, only to be presented once again in Urdu, in the post lunch session, for the express purpose of being finalized, documented and drafted, and of course in English.

A professor of Punjabi language and literature counsels his son, a tenth grade student, in carefully worded Urdu, about the absolute importance of English as an international language of higher learning, and indispensable for any academic progress in the fields of science and engineering. He further advises his son in Urdu, never to use Urdu in his new English medium school, where use of any other language except English is banned as a matter of policy. After this paternal, worldly wise exercise in pedagogy, the professor gives a call to a colleague and discusses the prospects of the forthcoming conference on lamentable state of Punjabi language in Punjab, in the perspective of Punjab and the Raj. They share heart rending episodes reflecting upon the criminal neglect of the state education and cultural policy makers which are systematically pushing Punjabi and the concomitant Punjabi culture to extinction. ‘Just imagine’, he says in a hoarse voice, ‘the crying shame of it. It is not permissible to talk in Punjabi in Punjab Assembly’.

A maid servant belonging to a Punjabi village insists on talking to her upper class urban mistress in Urdu, not because of any service requirement, but for the thrill of it. Trying her tongue at Urdu, vaguely transforms her sense of being, a fleeting kick may be, but elevating still. The matron too, encourages the lingual perversity of her maid. The utterly Punjabi words of the village girl, solemnly interspersed in otherwise identifiable Urdu, create an effect so droll, that the Bibi sahib laughs and laughs. What a piece of good luck indeed, having a servant hard working and so terribly funny too.

These are just a few glimpses from the socio-lingual cultural scenario of the present day Punjabi existence. Phenomenologically speaking, the tri-lingualism, or multilingualism if you like, inherent here in the typical life world of a Punjabi, is a far cry from  other varieties  of multilingualism identifiable at the global level, for instance the bilingualism of the Spanish, Chinese, Japanese, Korean speaking immigrants to English speaking America, not only because the Punjabis are no immigrants in Punjab, but because the inter-lingual and intra- lingual modes of their cultural existence are far more complex, than for instance, those of a Spanish speaking Mexican in California, because whereas the lingual predicaments of the latter may be understandable through the application of the ‘culture affiliation hypothesis’, or the minority group-affiliation hypothesis, proposed by the cross cultural psychologist, the tri-lingual mess of the Punjabis requires for more varied conceptual tools for its proper comprehension.
One such tool, or tool kit rather is of course that of post-colonial theory, where it is almost a matter of universal agreement that languages of the colonizer and that of the colonized come to be diversely influenced by a traumatized and ambivalent process of reciprocal dissemination through colonial encounter. That something in the same category can be identified as one of the major factors of historical causality underlying the present day Punjabi tri-lingualism, is perhaps a fairly well established fact. Post colonial literary writers, from their own perspective of literary creativity, have adopted different working policies while dealing with the question of employing native and colonial languages as a medium of literary expression. Ngugi Wa Thiongo, the Kenyan writer for example, adopting a policy of total abrogation, stopped writing in English the language of the colonial heritage, and started writing in his native Gikuyu language, as he writes in his book “Decolonising the mind” (1956).
Salman Rushdie, another postcolonial writer in the essay “Imaginary Homeland”, however, assumes a posture more of appropriation using another piece of postcolonial jargon, and is in favor of working in new Englishes so that they could become therapeutic acts of resistance, and could lead to a remaking of a colonial language capable of reflecting the complexity of our postcolonial experience.
These postcolonial insights regarding the role of English in postcolonial literary situations, and others to, as the issue has been so extensively explored in post colonial writings, do explicate to some extent the contemporary trilingual scenario of Punjab, but they fall short of explaining a far more fundamental question at least from the vantage point of philosophy and cross cultural cognitive psychology. And this is a question which is related to the impact of a trilingual confusion as it can be gleaned from the phenomenological anecdotal accounts given at the beginning of this account, on the cognitive profile of the Punjabi mind. Simply speaking, one would like to ask, does this sociolinguistic cultural condition affect in any way the cognitive faculties of the Punjabi subjects.
At this stage it would be perhaps more interesting to place the issue in the wider perspective of cross-cultural psychology of language. David Matsumoto, a well known scholar in this field after critically analyzing a lot of research conducted on the relation between lexicon, syntax and grammar, phonology, semantics, and pragmatics, of different languages and the cognitive peculiarities of their native speakers, remarks:
“These observations make it clear, that the people of different cultures, structure the world around them differently, at least in the language they use to describe the world”.
Matsumoto’s remarks are in line with the famous and rather controversial hypothesis, the so called Sapir Whorf hypothesis, named after the pioneering teacher and student pair of American anthropologists. Their position on the issue is not only based on extensive empirical evidence but is philosophically profound too. As Edward Sapir puts:
“Human beings do not live in the objective world alone, nor alone in the world of social activities as ordinarily understood, but very much at the mercy of the particular language which has become the medium of expression for their society”. Edward Sapir (The status of linguistics as a science).

The same position is further fortified with far more deeper implications by Benjamin Lee Whorf:
“We dissect nature along lines laid down by our native languages. The categories and types that we isolate from the world of phenomena we do not find there because they stare every observer in the face; on the contrary, the world is presented in a kaleidoscopic flux of impressions which has to be organized by our minds – and this means largely by the linguistic systems in our minds. We cut nature up, organize it into concepts, and ascribe significance as we do, largely because we are parties to an agreement that holds throughout our speech community and is codified in the patterns of our language.’ (Language, Thoughts and Reality pp. 212-214)
Controversy revolving around the empirical validity of Sapir-Whorf hypothesis has been fairly wide ranging, due to its far-reaching implications. Since the initiation of the hypothesis in 1930’s, many a piece of research work has been published, for and against it. It would be obviously beyond the scope of this piece of writing to attempt even at a summary of the intellectual legacy, but it would be relevant to refer to Matsumoto’s assessment of present bottom line position of Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. In his opinion the support for Sapir-Whorf hypothesis is weaker in the area of lexical difference between languages, but in his words
‘A less studied area that of syntactic and grammatical differences between languages provides strong evidence for the claim that languages influence cognition. Perhaps even stronger evidence will be found in future studies of how the pragmatic systems of different languages influence speakers’ thought processes’.
It is this feature of language called pragmatics, referring ‘to the system of rules governing how language is used and understood in given social contexts’, which is most relevant for understanding the conceptual exigencies of the issue at hand, the trilingual ambience of the present day Punjab. When applied, it generates a question about a historic-cultural specificity. What is the system of rules which governs the use of Punjabi, Urdu and English and how it is to be understood in the social context of Punjab. In other words can Sapir-Whorf hypothesis shed some light on this issue? The answer, obviously could hardly be settled through mere speculation, but would involve a lot of rigorous research with well defined methodology, something which perhaps has never been attempted. A battery of tests will have to be devised to evaluate the performance of the members of different subclasses of Punjabis, and to determine how far their faculties of thinking, conceptualization, problem solving, inductive reasoning, creativity, innovative thinking, and may be philosophizing come to be affected by the hidden and sometime not all too hidden determinants of their trilingual cultural hybrid. Till that wishfully anticipated occasion it would be advantageous for our present concerns to try to benefit a bit more from some research, conducted on similar lines that is on the bilingualism of the immigrants especially in the US. (more…)

Linguistic Bigotry: The Great Debate – II


NeechaN di ashnai koloN faiz kisay nahiN paya
kikar te angoor chRahia har gosha zakhmaya

(No one can benefit from people with lowly mentality. If the grapes’s vine is wrapped on a ‘kikkar’ tree, every bunch [of grapes] is damaged)

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A GREAT MEDIUM VS.THE LANGUAGE OF FIVE RIVERS

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[Response to Linguistic Bigotry]

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by Dr. Manzur Ejaz and Omar Ali

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One common characteristic among all kinds of bigots is their combination of ignorance and arrogance. A Pakistani-American physician, Dr. Arif Muslim proved this once more by saying that Punjabi language is “jaisai GhoRae, gadhe, billi aur Kuttae ki boli, waisae hi Punjabi boli.”

The emotional shock one feels is that this bigot is placing the great thinkers, linguists and poets of Punjabi language, Baba Farid, Guru Nanak, Shah Hussain,  Demodar Das, Bulleh Shah, Waris Shah, Mian Mohammad, Khawaja Farid and others, as well as a over a hundred million Punjabis, in the category of lowly animals. Whatever they wrote and whatever they speak everyday in millions of homes, turns out to be “GhoRae, gadhe, billi aur Kuttae ki boli.”

We should not make this an ethnic issue because the person who reported and protested the bigotry is an Urdu speaking physician himself. One can find such bigots among so-called educated Punjabis as well. In fact, these remarks would never be made in such a cavalier fashion if educated Punjabis had not encouraged and abetted such ignorance for decades. However, these remarks do demand a response to set the record straight. (more…)

Published in: on 26/04/2009 at 1:31 pm  Comments (5)  
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Linguistic Bigotry: The Great Debate – I


NeechaN di ashnai koloN faiz kisay nahiN paya
kikar te angoor chRahia har gosha zakhmaya

(No one can benefit from people with lowly mentality. If the grapes’s vine is wrapped on a ‘kikkar’ tree, every bunch [of grapes] is damaged)

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A GREAT MEDIUM VS. THE LANGUAGE OF FIVE RIVERS 

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 Note for WoP readers: Dr. Syed Ehtisham is a writer and analyst who frequently contributes to one of my favorite website http://www.wichaar.com

 Dr. Syed Ehtisham circulated this note among APPNA’ e-mail lists. He did not name the person but according to investigation by Dr.Manzur Ejazthe said person was Dr. Arif Muslim and the Dr. outraged Dr. Ghazala Qazi who read Mian Mohammad’s verses for him:-

NeechaN di ashnai koloN faiz kisay nahiN paya
kikar te angoor chRahia har gosha zakhmaya

(No one can benefit from people with lowly mentality. If the grapes’s vine is wrapped on a ‘kikkar’ tree, every bunch [of grapes] is damaged)

And now the note from Dr. Syed Ehtisham…… (more…)

Published in: on 26/04/2009 at 12:53 pm  Comments (5)  
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