This was also Pakistan [ 3.1 ]


Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) chairman Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, addresses a rally at Muhammad Ali Jinnah’s mausoleum in Karachi in 1969. (Photo courtesy of eBay.)
The rally was held immediately after a protest movement led by leftist students; labour and journalist unions; political parties, including PPP and the National Awami Party (NAP), had forced Pakistan’s first military dictator Ayub Khan, to resign.
Construction of the mausoleum began in the early 1960s and was still underway when the rally was held. Wooden ladders and planks being used for construction purposes were acrobatically utilised by the crowd to gain vantage viewing points on the day of the rally.
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THE FIRST THREE DECADES OF PAKISTAN’S HISTORY WERE BOOZE, BIKINI & TURBULENCE. YET HAD A MARKED ENVIRONMENT OF TOLERANCE  OPENNESS. AND A CULTURALLY VIBRANT  PAKISTAN

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by Nadeem F. Paracha

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And so we move on with our series of ‘Also Pakistan’. Travelling from Also Pakistan, zigzagging acrossAlso Pakistan-II and Also Pakistan-III we finally conclude with this final feature in the series.

It was an effort that with the help of painstakingly researched and collected images, tried to capture a Pakistan that now seems like a different planet compared to what it has been ever since the 1980s.

A strange, alien place that was also called Pakistan.

1954

Legendary jazz saxophonist and trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie, visited Pakistan during his whirlwind tour of Asia and the Middle East in the early 1950s. Here, he is seen playing his sax with a Sindhi snake charmer at a public park in Karachi in 1954.

1954

Famous Hollywood stars Ava Gardner and Stewart Granger arrive at Lahore Airport, 1954. The actors arrived in Lahore with a full filming crew to shoot a major portion of the film ‘Bhowani Junction.’

1954

Ava Gardner shooting a scene at the Lahore Railway Station in 1954.

1954

Pakistani fans and artistes gather around the main cast of Bhowani Junction on the film’s sets in Lahore.

1957


American Embassy building under construction in Karachi, 1957. (Photo courtesy of eBay.)
Completed in the late 1950s, the building became an iconic structure on Karachi’s Abdullah Haroon Road.
Apart from having a busy visa section, it also housed a state-of-the-art projection hall and a widespread library, which was used by generations of Karachi’s school and college students before it was closed down in the late 1990s.
Easy to access across the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s – the building was gradually barricaded and heavily fortified after the tragic September 11 episode in 2001. The visa section was moved to Islamabad, before returning to Karachi in 2012 (in a different building and compound).
This building faced at least four terrorist attacks between 2002 and 2006 and survived them all.
Though the US consulate has now moved to a different location in Karachi, the building still stands.

1960

American tourists enjoy a camel ride at Karachi’s Clifton beach in 1960. [Video grab from a 1960 tourism promotional film made by Pan Am]
A series of apartment blocks, bungalows, fast-food joints and restaurants have sprung up in the area today – but no tourists, especially not the bikini-wearing kind.

1962

A copy of famous spy novelist, Edward S. Arron’s 1962 book ‘Assignment Karachi.’
The book was one of the many he wrote that involved the adventures of CIA agent Sam Durell in various cities across the world.
This novel, which narrated the tale of Durell working with Pakistani authorities to capture Soviet-backed henchmen, became an instant best-seller in Pakistan.
However, in a quirky twist, some copies of this novel were set on fire by pro-Soviet leftist students during a demonstration (at the Karachi University) against Ayub Khan’s education policy in 1962.

1964

A 1964 PIA press ad featuring famous Hollywood comedian and actor Bob Hope.
PIA was one of the first airlines in the world to introduce in-flight entertainment. It regularly featured in all the prestigious top-10-airline lists for over 20 years, before dropping out in the mid-1980s.

1967

This is a 1967 press ad published in LIFE magazine for the American insurance company, Continental Insurance.
The number of American and British tourists visiting Pakistan began to grow from the early 1960s. The trend hit a peak in the late 1970s before starting to dwindle and peter out in the mid-1980s.
It (in a tongue-in-cheek manner) addresses those traveling to Karachi and getting injured during a ‘camel crash.’

1967

A 1967 tourism poster for Karachi (printed by American airline Pan Am and used in Europe and the US).

1970

A 1970 copy of a paperback version of the conspiratorial (and fictitious) book, ‘Protocols of Zion,’ printed in Pakistan in 1969.
The Protocols, a book describing a Jewish conspiracy to take over the world, first appeared in Russia in 1903. It was written by an obscure Russian anti-Semite author (most probably as a novel), but was given a whole new angle and widespread publicity by anti-Semite American industrial tycoons like Henry Ford and then by the Nazi regime in Germany.
Though constantly debunked as a hoax and a farce, the book soon became popular among Arabs incensed by the creation of Israel in 1948.
The book was little known in Pakistan until the Saudi Arabian regime used Pakistani publishers to print it for the Saudi monarchy in 1969.
Millions of copies of the above-seen book were published between 1969 and 1976 in Pakistan. Most of them were shipped off to Arab countries. In fact late King Faisal of Saudi Arabia used to hand a copy to visitors. He was assassinated by his nephew in 1975.
Many copies also found their way back on the shelves in Pakistan’s book stores. Initially, they became popular with anti-US leftist students, but by the mid-1980s, the book had almost entirely been adopted by the religious right.
It is interesting to note that almost no copies were published in Pakistan after the assassination of King Faisal in 1975, but newer editions with additions made by certain ulema, religious parties and Islamists in Pakistan, have been appearing ever since the 1980s.
The book has also been influential on popular conspiracy theorists in present-day Pakistan.

 1970

Part of the cast and crew of Pakistan Television (PTV)’s 1970 play, ‘Shazori,’ at a reception given in their honour by Canada Dry beverages company.
Shakeel (third from left) became a heartthrob and sex symbol, being cast in a number of famous PTV plays as a hero throughout the 1970s. He also tried his luck in films but failed to gain the kind of popularity he enjoyed on television.
Today, in his sixties, he still appears on the mini-screen as a character actor.

1970

A video grab from PTV’s groundbreaking coverage of the 1970 general elections.
Running consecutively for 48 hours, the 1970 election transmission was one of the first long duration live events telecast by PTV.
Seen in the picture is famous PTV anchor of the 1970s, Laeeq Ahmed, pointing at the number of seats (162) won by the Bengali nationalist party in former East Pakistan, the Awami League (AL).
In 1971 AL rebelled against the West Pakistan military establishment (for not giving it the democratic right to lead the new democratic regime as a majority party), and after a bloody civil war, East Pakistan broke away and became the independent Bengali republic of Bangladesh.
Notice how the host is holding a cigarette in his hand while discussing the election results. TV hosts commonly smoked on the air until the practice was discontinued in the early 1980s.

1972

Newspaper ad (taken from DAWN’s 7 February, 1972 edition) announcing the arrival of a Lebanese belly dancer in Karachi.
Between the early 1960s and late 1970s, Karachi was dotted by a number of nightclubs that competed for clients by offering the best in-house pop bands, bars and professional belly dancers invited from cities like Beirut, Cairo, Tehran and Istanbul.
Nightclubs were ordered shut in 1977.

1972

Two hippie tourists at a tea shop in Sibi, Balochistan, in 1972.
Today, traveling to a Baloch town like the one in the picture has become a no-go area even for Pakistanis! (Photo courtesy Rory McLane).
vibrant 1973 poster prepared and printed by the Pakistan Ministry of Tourism to attract tourism to the city of Lahore.

Next: This was also Pakistan [ 3.2 ]

Page  1 

Nadeem F. Paracha is a cultural critic and senior columnist for Dawn Newspaper and Dawn.com

You might also like: 

1. Picturing Pakistan’s Past [in two parts] 2. Those were the days my friend [in three parts]
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9 CommentsLeave a comment

  1. Thank you Dr. Hashmey!

  2. Isn’t it fascinating! Pakistan was once a rather liberal, accepting and tolerant country in many ways and has grown to become almost a closed society in many ways also. Religious intolerance has created a climate of fear and murder and we see this across the Muslim world. I would have felt very comfortable visiting Pakistan in 1975 as a 20 year-old man but today?

    • Thanx a lot Jeff for visiting WoP
      after such a long time.

      Though successive Pakistani regimes are principally to be blamed for all the bad things happening now in Pakistan, yet the US administrations particularly the Neocons surrounded Bush regime in the early 2000’s under no circumstance can be absolved of its sinister role in infusing our land of peace to an extremely religious. sectarian culture, and to that a closed and orthodox nemesis who proclaims itself as the torch bearer of Islam, an Islam which is not acceptable to the common masses of Pakistan.

      They, however, have the support of CIA sponsored cells which train these renegades to fight against the state power but in this exercise they maim, kill and destroy the innocents of Pakistan with the same ferocity with which the US drones kill the civilians along with their “marked” terrorists.

      Ya, Jeff visiting Pakistan in 1975 would have been a marvelous visit in so far as being in 20’s and then visiting a distant land in the orient which was far more open, tolerant and accommodating than its now. But as far as the people, the land and the environment in the heart land of Pakistan is concerned, even today its the same old young Pakistan with its open heart to embrace, smiling to welcome any brother, any friend any guest.

      Dr. Tewari may not agree with this but lot of Indians who come over here discover a totally different Pakistan than what their media or the government wishes to paint to them.

      With the icy relations between India and Pakistan experiencing some warmth at present, I would request him to come here once and he will himself see that in spite of the suicide bombings. in spite of the extremists hitting our countrymen including the Hindus Sikh and Christian, Shia and Sunnis of Pakistan, the majority of Pakistan is at heart the same open, tolerant and liberal society as it has been for the centuries during its history.

      To him and many other Indian friends, I do request to please come with constructive criticism/analysis with a new approach, new angle to the India-Pakistan-Context. I say this because many Indian readers of this site send comments from which I gather that they don’t have much of a life besides commenting negatively on Pakistan considering, of course, that India is God’s paradise on Earth.

      Times may change, the political and social attitudes may change but the psyche of the people never does change. And the psyche of Pakistani masses is inherently much more open, all embracing, hospitable and tolerant than what the Salfists and the TTP goons may try to portray this land of Jinnah and Iqbal.

      Pakistan through its various periods of history has been accommodating and accepting various cultural, religious and social changes. Had this not been the case, this land mass would not have undergone the transformation that it underwent from Hinduism to Buddhism and then to Islam.

      Barring these few renegades [who are though a very tiny minority in Pakistan, yet have a formidable, lethal nuisance that has almost put a question mark on the very existence of the nation state of Pakistan],

      Pakistanis by and large do not owe to these hate mongering, religious puritans. Innocent 14 years young Malala is the real face of Pakistan not these black hooded charlatans who call themselves as the Tehrik-e-Taliban of Pakistan..

  3. Yes, but you forgot to mention there was also a Pakistan within British India before 1947. That Pakistan preferred to get separated to attain a glorified status. But Gandhi Ji had opposed this idea and said that India’s fragmentation will lead you to further fragmentations. Jinnah did not agree. However, what happened in 1971 and what is happening now, is before us.

  4. I also want to visit Pakistan, but when it is certain that I will come back home safely. Thanks

    At present my desire is to reverse the existing situation of Pakistan to its gloriest past. For this purpose my open support goes to sending drones to the targeted destinations in order to eliminate the Jihadees and their supporters from the entire subcontinent.

  5. […] Previous: This was also Pakistan [ 3.1 ] […]

  6. […] Starting with “Those were the Days….” which formed the first part of this series, we took you down the memory lane to those years of Pakistan’s history (here, here, and here), and then to the second part. Titled under “Picturing Pakistan’s Past”, we brought some more scenes, more news and still some more happenings of the period from the early 1950s to the end of the 1970s (here, and here). This was followed by yet another part, the third one titled “This was also Pakistan” (here and here). […]

  7. […] This was also Pakistan [ 3.1 ],  This was also Pakistan [ 3.2 ], Picturing Pakistan’s Past, [2.1] Picturing Pakistan’s Past, [ 2.2 ] Those were the days my friend [1.1], Once Upon A Time in Pakistan…[1.2 ], Once Upon A Time in Pakistan… [1.3 ] […]

  8. I pray to Allah, to bring us back, the tolerant & culturally strong Pakistan.
    Where tourists enjoy the freedom, & the citizens have the safety & security to go anywhere in Pakistan, without any second thoughts.


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