Untold horrors, as a result of the nuclear attack continued for several decades and this day serves as a grim reminder to one of history’s darkest moments ever. This post pays homage to the Japanese people who suffered colossal loss of lives and unspeakable humanitarian damage that ensued as a result of the bombings of Hiroshima and subsequently Nagasaki.
THOMAS MERTON AND THE ORIGINAL CHILD BOMB
by Vincent Di Stefano & Chaz Kilmer
On 6th of August, 1945 US used the first ever atomic bomb on mostly civilian installations in Hiroshima, Japan. On this day President Harry S. Truman decided to throw the most devastating device on earth to demonstrate to the axis powers as well as the powers that could emerge to challnge the US in nuclear as well as conventional military dominance.
After US nuclear attack on Japan many other contries including United Kingdom, France, Russia and then China also have acquired this lethal tecnology.
Twenty nine years after Hiroshima bombing, India detonated its own nuclear device, which prompted Pakistan also to develop one of its own. Post 1974 Pakistan was on the path of acquiring nuclear self sufficiency. So when in 1998 India conducted 3 more nuclear explosions, Pakistan followed suit by conducting five nuclear explosions.
In addition to the nuclear race between the two neighbours of the subcontinent, countries like South Korea, Israel and probably South Africa have also developed their nuclear arsenals. Its, however, most serious scenario that in spite of the massive devastations caused by a nuclear explosion particularly in the war, every other country seems to go nuclear. This irrespective of the fact that atom bombs whether smal or big, Jewish, or Muslim, Christian or Hndu, are all weapons of mass destrcution.
Whereas destruction of nuclear weapons of each and every one, super power, regional power, or an emerging power should have been the only solution to save his world, the hypocrisy of major powers to retain their own arsenals in tact but asking other counties to go for destroying their nukes is something which never is going to do any practical service towards total destruction of atomic arsenals worldwide.
To quote David Krieger: The bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are a matter of past now. We cannot resurrect these cities. The residents of these cities have done this for themselves. What we can do is learn from their experience. What they have to teach is perhaps humanity’s most important lesson: We are confronted by the possibility of our extinction as a species, not simply the reality of our individual deaths, but the death of humanity. This possibility became evident at Hiroshima. The great French existential writer, Albert Camus, wrote in the immediate aftermath of the bombing of Hiroshima:
” Our technical civilization has just reached its greatest level of savagery. We will have to choose, in the more or less near future, between collective suicide and the intelligent use of our scientific conquests. Before the terrifying prospects now available to humanity, we see even more clearly that peace is the only battle worth waging. This is no longer a prayer but a demand to be made by all peoples to their governments – a demand to choose definitively between hell and reason.”
To rely upon nuclear weapons for security is to put the future of our species and most of life at risk of annihilation. Humanity is faced with a choice: Eliminate nuclear weapons or continue to run the risk of them eliminating us. Unless we recognize this choice and act upon it, we face the possibility of a global Hiroshima. [Nayyar]
Original Child Bomb” is one of a small number of pieces written by Thomas Merton which he described as “anti-poems.” This unusual group of poems includes “Chant to be Used in Processions around a Site with Furnaces” an interpretation of which can be accessed in an earlier posting of “Dante’s Ghost.”
Merton’s anti-poems are characterised by the conscious and ironic use of the debased but now-commonplace language that masks the horror of genocide.In his essay “War and the Crisis of Language”, Merton wrote: “Poets are perhaps the ones who, at the present moment, are most sensitive to the sickness of language – a sickness that, infecting all literature with nausea, prompts us not so much to declare war on conventional language as simply to pick up and examine closely a few chosen pieces of linguistic garbage.”
“Original Child Bomb” was first published in his friend Robert Lax’s magazine “Pax” in 1961, but was soon picked up by “New Directions” and re-published a year later in 1962, thereby reaching a far wider audience.The music used in this piece includes:“Sentimental Journey” by Les Brown with Doris Day (1945)
“Hell, Fire and Damnation” by Jocelyn Pook from “Untold Things” Real World Records, 2001
“Only the Devil Laughed” by Hildegard von Bingen. Performers: Catherine King, Emily Van Evera and Sister Germaine Fritz from “Vision. The Music of Hildegard von Bingen” Angel Records, 1994.
Original Child Bomb can be streamed using the media player above. A CD quality mp3 audio file is available for download here, and both CD quality and LoFi mp3 files are available for download here.
ORIGINAL CHILD BOMB
Points for meditation to be scratched on the walls of a cave:
1: In the year 1945 an Original Child was born. The name Original Child was given to it by the Japanese people, who recognized that it was the first of its kind.
2: On April 12th, 1945, Mr. Harry Truman became the President of the United States, which was then fighting the Second World War. Mr. Truman was a vice president who became President by accident when his predecessor died of a cerebral hemorrhage. He did not know as much about the war as the President before him did. He knew a lot less about the war than many people did.
About one hour after Mr. Truman became President, his aides told him about a new bomb which was being developed by atomic scientists. They called it the “atomic bomb.” They said scientists had been working on it for six years and that it had so far cost two billion dollars. They added that its power was equal to that of twenty thousand tons of TNT. A single bomb could destroy a city.
The plane carrying the bomb, Enola Gay, flew high over the city and released its payload, a nuclear fission bomb named Little Boy. After hitting the ground, the bomb sustained a nuclear fission reaction, releasing huge amounts of energy into the immediate area, instantly vaporizing houses, humans, and all that stood in its path.
One of those present added, in a reverent tone, that the new explosive might eventually destroy the whole world. But Admiral Leahy told the President the bomb would never work.
3: President Truman formed a committee of men to tell him if this bomb would work, and if so, what he should do with it. Some members of this committee felt that the bomb would jeopardize the future of civilization. They were against its use. Others wanted it to be used in demonstration on a forest of cryptomeria trees, but not against a civil or military target.
Many atomic scientists warned that the use of atomic power in war would be difficult and even impossible to control. The danger would be very great. Finally, there were others who believed that if the bomb were used just once or twice, on one or two Japanese cities, there would be no more war. They believed the new bomb would produce eternal peace.
4: In June 1945 the Japanese government was taking steps to negotiate for peace. On one hand the Japanese ambassador tried to interest the Russian government in acting as a go-between with the United States. On the other hand, an unofficial approach was made secretly through Mr. Allen Dulles in Switzerland.
The Russians said they were not interested and that they would not negotiate. Nothing was done about the other proposal, which was not official. The Japanese High Command was not in favor of asking for peace, but wanted to continue the war, even if the Japanese mainland were invaded. The generals believed that the war should continue until everybody was dead. The Japanese generals were professional soldiers.
5: In the same month of June, the President’s committee decided that the new bomb should be dropped on a Japanese city. This would be a demonstration of the bomb on a civil and military target. As “demonstration” it would be a kind of a “show.” “Civilians” all over the world love a good “show.” The “destructive” aspect of the bomb would be “military.”
6: The same committee also asked if America’s friendly ally, the Soviet Union, should be informed of the atomic bomb. Someone suggested that this information would make the Soviet Union even more friendly than it was already. But all finally agreed that the Soviet Union was now friendly enough.
7: There was discussion about which city should be selected as the first target. Some wanted it to be Kyoto, an ancient capital of Japan and a center of the Buddhist religion. Others said no, this would cause bitterness. As a result of a chance conversation, Mr. Stimson, the Secretary of War, had recently read up on the history and beauties of Kyoto. He insisted that this city should be left untouched.
Some wanted Tokyo to be the first target, but others argued that Tokyo had already been practically destroyed by fire raids and could no longer be considered a “target.” So it was decided Hiroshima was the most opportune target, as it had not yet been bombed at all. Lucky Hiroshima! What others had experienced over a period of four years would happen to Hiroshima in a single day! Much time would be saved, and “time is money!”
8: When they bombed Hiroshima they would put the following out of business: the Ube Nitrogen Fertilizer Company; the Ube Soda Company; the Nippon Motor Oil Company; the Sumitoma Chemical Company; the Sumitoma Aluminum Company, and most of the inhabitants.
9: At this time some atomic scientists protested again, warning that the use of the bomb in war would tend to make the United States unpopular. But the President’s committee was by now fully convinced that the bomb had to be used. Its use would arouse the attention of the Japanese military class and give them food for thought.
10: Admiral Leahy renewed his declaration that the bomb would not explode.
11: On the 4th of July, when the United States in displays of fireworks celebrates its independence from British rule, the British and Americans agreed together that the bomb ought to be used against Japan.
12: On July 7th the Emperor of Japan pleaded with the Soviet Government to act as mediator for peace between Japan and the Allies. Molotov said the question would be “studied.” In order to facilitate this “study” Soviet troops in Siberia prepared to attack the Japanese. The Allies had, in any case, been urging Russia to join the war against Japan. However, now that the atomic bomb was nearly ready, some thought it would be better if the Russians took a rest.
13: The time was coming for the new bomb to be tested, in the New Mexico desert. A name was chosen to designate this secret operation. It was called “Trinity.”
14: At 5:30 A.M. on July 16th, 1945, a plutonium bomb was successfully exploded in the desert at Alamogordo, New Mexico. It was suspended from a hundred-foot steel tower which evaporated. There was a fireball a mile wide. The great flash could be seen for a radius of 250 miles. A blind woman miles away said she perceived light. There was a cloud of smoke 40,000 feet high. It was shaped like a toadstool.
15: Many who saw the experiment expressed their satisfaction in religious terms. A semi-official report even quoted a religious book—the New Testament—“Lord, I believe, help thou my unbelief.” There was an atmosphere of devotion. It was a great act of faith. They believed the explosion was exceptionally powerful.
16: Admiral Leahy, still a “doubting Thomas,” said that the bomb would not explode when dropped from a plane over a city. Others may have had “faith,” but he had his own variety of “hope.”
17: On July 21st a full written report of the explosion reached President Truman at Potsdam. The report was documented by pictures. President Truman read the report and looked at the pictures before starting out for the conference. When he left his mood was jaunty and his step was light.
18: That afternoon Mr. Stimson called on Mr. Churchill, and laid before him a sheet of paper bearing a code message about the successful test. The message read “Babies satisfactorily born.” Mr. Churchill was quick to realize that there was more in this than met the eye. Mr. Stimson satisfied his legitimate curiosity.
19: On this same day sixty atomic scientists who knew of the test signed a petition that the bomb should not be used against Japan without a convincing warning and an opportunity to surrender.
At this time the U.S.S. Indianapolis, which had left San Francisco on the 18th, was sailing toward the Island of Tinian, with some U 235 in a lead bucket. The fissionable material was about the size of a softball, but there was enough for one atomic bomb. Instructions were that if the ship sank, the uranium was to be saved first, before any life. The mechanism of the bomb was on board the U.S.S. Indianapolis, but it was not yet assembled.
20: On July 26th the Potsdam declaration was issued. An ultimatum was given to Japan: “Surrender unconditionally or be destroyed.” Nothing was said about the new bomb. But pamphlets dropped all over Japan threatened “an enormous air bombardment” if the army would not surrender. On July 26th the U.S.S. Indianapolis arrived at Tinian and the bomb was delivered.
21: On July 28th, since the Japanese High Command wished to continue the war, the ultimatum was rejected. A censored version of the ultimatum appeared in the Japanese press with the comment that it was “an attempt to drive a wedge between the military and the Japanese people.” But the Emperor continued to hope that the Russians, after “studying” his proposal, would help to negotiate a peace.
On July 3oth Mr. Stimson revised a draft of the announcement that was to be made after the bomb was dropped on the Japanese target. The statement was much better than the original draft.
Assembly of “Little Boy” Tinian 1945
22: On August 1st the bomb was assembled in an air-conditioned hut on Tinian. Those who handled the bomb referred to it as “Little Boy.” Their care for the Original Child was devoted and tender.
23: On August 2nd President Truman was the guest of His Majesty King George VI on board the H.M.S. Renown in Plymouth Harbor. The atomic bomb was praised. Admiral Leahy, who was present, declared that the bomb would not work. His Majesty George VI offered a small wager to the contrary.
24: On August 2nd a special message from the Japanese Foreign Minister was sent to the Japanese Ambassador in Moscow. “It is requested that further efforts be exerted. . . . Since the loss of one day may result in a thousand years of regret, it is requested that you immediately have a talk with Molotov.” But Molotov did not return from Potsdam until the day the bomb fell.
25: On August 4th the bombing crew on Tinian watched a movie of “Trinity” (the Alamogordo Test). August 5th was a Sunday but there was little time for formal worship. They said a quick prayer that the war might end “very soon.”
On that day, Col. Tibbetts, who was in command of the B-29 that was to drop the bomb, felt that his bomber ought to have a name. He baptized it Enola Gay, after his mother in Iowa. Col. Tibbetts was a well-balanced man, and not sentimental. He did not have a nervous breakdown after the bombing, like some of the other members of the crew.
26: On Sunday afternoon “Little Boy” was brought out in procession and devoutly tucked away in the womb of Enola Gay. That evening few were able to sleep. They were as excited as little boys on Christmas Eve.
27: At 1:37 A.M. August 6th the weather scout plane took off. It was named the Straight Flush, in reference to the mechanical action of a water closet. There was a picture of one, to make this evident.
28: At the last minute before taking off, Col. Tibbetts changed the secret radio call sign from “Visitor” to “Dimples.” The Bombing Mission would be a kind of flying smile.
29: At 2:45 A.M. Enola Gay got off the ground with difficulty. Over Iwo Jima she met her escort, two more B-29s, one of which was called the Great Artiste. Together they proceeded to Japan.
30: At 6:40 they climbed to 31,000 feet, the bombing altitude. The sky was clear. It was a perfect morning.
Hiroshima 1945: The area of the destruction caused by the bomb was about 4 square miles. In this area an estimated 48,000 buildings were completely destroyed. More damage occurred from the fires generated by the explosion over the next several days.
The ethicality of such a devastating attack on Japanese civilians by the United States military has been debated over and over. However, what is clear is that thousands of innocent lives were lost and many believe it was unnecessary, although it did greatly help the United States in defeating Japan in World War 2 and removing the militaristic government in power.
31: At 8:09 they reached Hiroshima and started the bomb run. The city was full of sun. The fliers could see the green grass in the gardens. No fighters rose up to meet them. There was no flak. No one in the city bothered to take cover.
Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are the sole responsibility of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of the ‘Wonders of Pakistan’. The contents of this article too are the sole responsibility of the author(s). WoP will not be responsible or liable for any inaccurate or incorrect statements contained in this post.
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